Finds in Göbeklitepe Main Excavation Site

C yapısının havadan görünümü (Alman Arkeoloji Enstitüsü / DAI, Foto K. Schmidt).
C yapısının havadan görünümü (Alman Arkeoloji Enstitüsü / DAI, Foto K. Schmidt).

Göbeklitepe main excavation area is located in the large pit on the southern slope of the ruins.

Here, four large circular structures named A through D were brought to light (for details see Schmidt 2000b; 2006; 2008; 2012).

Göbeklitepe A Building

As mentioned above, structure A was unearthed in 1996 as the first structure. The plan of the building in question is more than square, but this structure is still included in the group of circular structures.

Props 1 and 2 form the central props.

There are reliefs of bull, fox and pike depictions on the left wide surface of pillar 2 (German Archeology Institute / DAI, Foto C. Gerber).
There are reliefs of bull, fox and pike depictions on the left wide surface of pillar 2 (German Archeology Institute / DAI, Foto C. Gerber).

Both pillars are richly decorated with reliefs; Particular attention is drawn to the web-shaped embossment placed at the lower left of the post 1. In this relief, a net made of snakes should be revived.

On the front of the relief there are two wide, downwardly hanging strips; these strips extend vertically down from both sides of the area by limiting a hollow area of ​​similar width and right in the middle to metopes. Five snakes can be seen above and between the strips.

Strips can be perceived as a depiction of a stola-like clothing. A bocranium is placed in the narrow part at the back with the series “bull, fox and crane” perpendicular to the lower right part of the pillar no. The number of other pillars in structure A, lined up around the central pillars, has only reached four so far.

Göbeklitepe B Building

Unlike structure A, structure B is really circular in shape.

View of structure B (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Photo I. Wagner).
View of structure B (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Photo I. Wagner).

The inner diameter of the circle is exactly 10 m. Eight pillars have been identified on the perimeter wall so far, and the reliefs on the pillars are few in number compared to those in structure A. Among the central pillars with fox reliefs on both sides, a base was found, where the terazzo floor known from Çayönü and Nevalı Çori was seen. A stone vessel left in the basement of the central pillar in the east is surprising.

The stone bowl proves that there were some ceremonies between the central pillars during which the liquids played a certain role.

Göbeklitepe C Building

Structure C is a structure with a total diameter of more than 30 m and several interlocking circular walls.

Aerial view of structure C (German Archeology Institute / DAI, Foto K. Schmidt).
Aerial view of structure C (German Archeology Institute / DAI, Foto K. Schmidt).

However, the center of the building was destroyed by a large ancient pit. Especially the central pillars of the building were damaged greatly; the upper parts of these pillars were found to be divided into large pieces of tens of pounds and filled in the pit. In this structure, terazzo base is not seen, as in structure B; Structure C is located directly on the bedrock.

The rock floor was carefully leveled and a slippery surface was created. Both central posts stand on a podium with an average height of 30 cm from the floor.

Circular props of the building are scattered on two peripheral walls. There are eleven pillars on the first inner wall and seven pillars on the second inner wall. Considering a possible strut on the profile ramp, it can be said that the inner circle consists of twelve struts. Since the structure has not been completely excavated yet, other works will emerge in the second circle.

The total number of struts cannot be estimated yet. It is also unclear for now whether there is a third and fourth circular wall; The finds on the west side of the building are thought to indicate such a phenomenon. There is a predator high relief on the 27 numbered pillar, which is directly engraved on the bottom and indicates a great mastery.

On the front face of pillar 27 belonging to structure C, there is a high relief of a predatory animal showing its teeth and a low relief depicting a male boar (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Foto O. Durgut).
On the front face of pillar 27 belonging to structure C, there is a high relief of a predatory animal showing its teeth and a low relief depicting a male boar (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Foto O. Durgut).

Duck and male wild boar depictions come to the fore in partially richly decorated C-pillars.

Göbeklitepe D Building

Structure D is the best preserved structure. Unlike the C structure, it has not been destroyed afterwards, and it has preserved its state of origin for 12 millennia. Eleven orthopedic pillars so far have been exposed; The space between struts 43 and 30 is large enough to accommodate one or two struts.

The inner diameter of the oval structure (D) is more than 20 m in the east-west direction. It is particularly interesting that the D structure erected both centers with a height of 5.5 m. On the wide surfaces of both pillars, the arms are given as low relief; In addition, a neck or neck ornament, which is abstracted as low relief, can be seen in the props. There is a bukranium on the western pillar, half a month on the east and an H-shaped decoration on a circle.

The description (presence of the post) in the strut no. 18 squeezed a fox between its elbow and the arm.

Bones of a foxtail were also found near the said pillar. It is also surprising that a low-relief arch is depicted just under the hands of both struts.

The belt buckle is detailed in the front (abdomen) part of strut 31, and there is a depiction of a bull on the east-facing surface of the strut.

Strut # 18 is richly decorated. There are several H-shaped icons on both sides of the belt buckle and C and H-shaped on the sides of the body. Two animal hide hangs from both belts on the front face of the pillar. It can be assumed that the skins are fox fur.

Strut No. 18 is one of the struts at the center of structure D (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Foto N. Becker).
Strut No. 18 is one of the struts at the center of structure D (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Foto N. Becker).

Props placed in a circular shape in structure D also show rich decorations in places. Planting No. 43 is particularly interesting.

Second strut No. 31 (German Archeology Institute / DAI, Foto N. Becker), located in the center of structure D.
Second strut No. 31 (German Archeology Institute / DAI, Foto N. Becker), located in the center of structure D.

The pillar was decorated on three sides. The wide surface on the east is the richest decorated part. In the upper part of the head are objects with box-shaped and handle-like applications, each accompanying an animal depiction. A vulture balancing a round object on its wing is seen under a frieze with a geometric decoration.

There is a bald ibis in front of the vulture. These descriptions are followed by other animals and abstract signs. A scorpion dominates the lower part of the pillar.

One of the broad faces of pillar 43, one of the pillars of structure D, is adorned with descriptions spread over the entire surface (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Foto B. Steinhilber).
One of the broad faces of pillar 43, one of the pillars of structure D, is adorned with descriptions spread over the entire surface (German Institute of Archeology / DAI, Foto B. Steinhilber).

Contrary to the usual animation under the scorpion, a bird with a steep phallus and a headless person is depicted with a bird head looking out of the structure.

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